Table of Contents

Exploring Geography: Asking Questions and Seeking Answers

Thinking like a Geographer

A Model for Critical Thinking


Zoom In: Geotechnology at Sea

Interactions with the Physical Environment

Big Question: What are the interrelationships within the natural environment and how are they related to where Canadians live?

Chapter 1 – Where Do Canadians Live and Work?
Chapter Question: Exactly where in this vast country do Canadians live?

  • Oh! Canada?
  • Big Country, Small Population
  • Zoom In: Identifying Canadian Communities Using Census Data
  • People Patterns and Terminology
  • Viewpoints: Does It Matter If Areas Far from Large Cities Lose Population?
  • Reflect and Analyze: Where Do Canadians Live and Work?

Chapter 2 – Exploring Connections: Landforms, Geology, and Human Activities
Chapter Question: How do different landforms and geologic processes contribute to where and how people live?

  • Why Do Cities Sprawl Over the Best Farmland?
  • Patterns and Processes
  • Landform Processes
  • Zoom In: Drop, Cover, and Hold On! Earthquakes in British Columbia
  • Rock Cycle
  • Glaciation
  • Landform Patterns
  • Landform Regions of Canada
  • Reflect and Analyze: Exploring Connections: Landforms, Geology, and Human Activities

Chapter 3 – Exploring Connections: Climate, Soils, and Natural Vegetation and Human Activities
Chapter Question: How do different climate, soil, and natural vegetation regions contribute to where and how people live?

  • Climate Change Up Close
  • Climate Processes
  • Zoom In: Reading Climate Graphs
  • Climate Regions of Canada
  • Viewpoints: Which Part of Canada Has the “Nicest” Climate?
  • Why Do We Treat Our Soil Like Dirt?
  • Soil Processes
  • Soil Patterns
  • Zoom In: Tundra and Climate Change
  • Natural Vegetation Processes
  • Vegetation Patterns
  • Reflect and Analyze: Exploring Connections: Climate, Soil, and Natural Vegetation and Human Activities

Unit Performance Task: Creating Your Own Regional Map of Canada

Resources and Industries

Big Question: How is our future tied to our ability to manage our natural and human resources effectively?

Chapter 4 – Rethinking How We View and Use Natural Resources
Chapter Question: Should we rethink how we perceive and use our natural resources?

  • New Cars for New Times
  • What Are Natural Resources?
  • Types of Resources
  • Resources and the 3Rs
  • Zoom In: More than the Blue Box
  • Viewpoints: Were the Good Old Days Really So Good?
  • Rethinking Our Use of Resources
  • We Need a Balanced Approach
  • Reflect and Analyze: Rethinking How We View and Use Natural Resources

Chapter 5 – Managing Renewable Resources Successfully
Chapter Question: Why must we use our renewable resources in a sustainable way?

  • Rethinking Our Seafood Choices
  • Sustained Yield Management
  • A Closer Look at Farming
  • Zoom In: The Business of Farming
  • A Closer Look at Forestry
  • Viewpoints: Eat Locally vs. Eat Globally
  • A Closer Look at Fishing
  • Zoom In: Algonquin Park: An Example of Good Forest Management
  • Zoom In: What Happened to the East Coast Cod? How Can We Manage Our Fish Resources Better?
  • Reflect and Analyze: Managing Renewable Resources Successfully

Chapter 6 – Fresh Water–Canada’s Special Resource?
Chapter Question: Is fresh water our most important resource?

  • Who Decides How We Use Our Water?
  • Global Water Supply
  • Global Water Demand
  • Canada’s Water Resources
  • The Local Picture
  • Water Usage in Canada
  • Water Issues for Your (and Canada’s) Future
  • Viewpoints: What Should We Do About Bulk Water Sales?
  • Reflect and Analyze: Fresh Water–Canada’s Special Resource?

Chapter 7 – Managing Non-Renewable Resources Successfully
Chapter Question: What is the most effective way to manage Canada’s non-renewable resources?

  • Important…But Always Controversial?
  • A Quick Overview of Non-Renewable Resources
  • Viewpoints: Do We Need to Save Resources for the Future?
  • A Closer Look at Fossil Fuels
  • Zoom In: Should Environmentalists be Fans of Fracking?
  • A Closer Look at Mining
  • Zoom In: Energy Issues
  • NIMBY or Not: Finding a Balance
  • Zoom In: What Next for the Northern Ontario Ring of Fire?
  • Reflect and Analyze: Managing Non-Renewable Resources Successfully

Chapter 8 – Prospects for Canadian Manufacturing
Chapter Question: Can Canada’s manufacturing sector recover from its recent decline?

  • Do You—and Should We—Try to Buy Canadian-made Products?
  • Breaking the Economy Down into Sectors
  • Location Factors for Manufacturing
  • Viewpoints: Should governments give auto companies money?
  • Lost Manufacturing
  • Zoom In: Matching the Location Factors
  • Zoom In: Plant Closings: One Town’s Experience
  • Free Trade and Manufacturing
  • Manufacturing and Canada’s Foreign Trade
  • What is Causing the Manufacturing Decline? Is There a Solution?
  • Reflect and Analyze: Prospects for Canadian Manufacturing

Chapter 9 – The Service Sector and Its Role in the Economy
Chapter Question: Why should we be very concerned about the quantity and quality of jobs in the service sector?

  • Why Does the Service Sector of the Economy Get so Little Attention?
  • Breaking the Economy Down into Sectors
  • Why You Will Likely Work in the Tertiary Sector
  • It Is All About the Basics (and Non-basics)
  • Zoom In: Service Businesses—All Shapes and Sizes
  • Zoom In: What Happens When a Community’s Basic Jobs Disappear?
  • Viewpoints: Is the Tertiary Sector the Most Important or the Least Important Part of the Economy?
  • Reflect and Analyze: The Service Sector and Its Role in the Economy

Unit Performance Task: Who Manages Canada’s Resources and Industries?

Canada’s Changing Population

Big Question: Why are changes in population patterns over time critically important?

Chapter 10 – Canada’s Population
Chapter Question: How is Canada’s population changing, and why does this matter to your future?

  • Understanding Canada’s Population Growth
  • On an Average Day …
  • Zoom In: Trends in Canada’s Natural Increase History
  • Immigration: A Canadian Tradition
  • Canada’s Immigration History
  • How to Become an Immigrant
  • Where Immigrants Settle
  • Viewpoints: Does Canada Accept Too Many Immigrants?
  • Internal Migration
  • Dependency Ratios and What They Mean for You
  • Reflect and Analyze: Canada’s Population

Chapter 11 – Population Issues for Canada and the World
Chapter Question: Why are population issues, both at home and globally, of critical importance for our future?

  • Can Governments Control Population Growth? Should They?
  • Demographic Change: Problems for Your Future or Opportunities?
  • The Demographic Transition Model
  • Viewpoints: Should Canada Have a One-Child Policy?
  • Global Population Issues
  • Canada’s Role in Reducing Global Population Issues
  • Zoom In: Get on the Carousel With Population Issues
  • Reflect and Analyze: Population Issues for Canada and the World

Performance Task: Challenges of a Changing Population

Liveable Communities

Big Question:

Chapter 12 – Land Use in Our Communities
Chapter Question: How does the way we use land in our communities relate to how we live?

  • Issue: Our Lives on the Land
  • Urban Land Use
  • Transportation Land Use
  • Residential Land Use
  • Commercial Land Use
  • Industrial Land Use
  • Other Land Uses
  • Open Space and Recreational Land Use
  • Land-use Conflicts and Zoning
  • Zoom In: Complimentary or Conflicting Land Use?
  • Reflect and Analyze: Land Use in Our Communities

Chapter 13 – Creating Better, More Liveable Communities
Chapter Question: How do we make better choices to make our communities more liveable?

  • The Challenge of Building Better Communities
  • What Makes a Community Liveable?
  • How Do We Balance Liveability with Urban Growth?
  • Zoom In: More Than a Place to Grow
  • Viewpoints: Is Compact Growth Really Better?
  • Building Transportation Systems That Work
  • Zoom In: The Big Move in southern Ontario
  • Reflect and Analyze: Creating Better, More Liveable Communities

Chapter 14 – Measuring Our Progress Toward a Better World
Chapter Question: What is the best way to measure how we are doing in trying to achieve a more sustainable world?

  • Can We Meet all of Our Wants and Needs and Still Be Environmentally Sustainable?
  • Human Progress Indices: Why Keeping Score Matters
  • Zoom In: Completing the Jigsaw
  • Viewpoints: Is a Much Smaller Ecological Footprint Part of Canada’s Future?
  • Reflect and Analyze: Measuring Our Progress Toward a Better World

Culminating Task: Liveable Communities