Web Links

Unit A

1.0: The understanding that particles make up the underlying structure of matter has led to advancements in technology

Text Pages 4-5

Methane Hydrate - check out the following links for more information on this promising and controversial new energy source:

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Safety in the Laboratory - these links will supply you with excellent support in your quest to create a safe learning environment in your science lab:

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What are Household Hazardous Wastes? - Alberta Environment's guide for dealing with dangerous chemicals in the home.

Text Pages 9-10

Laboratory Guidelines - consulting these sources will help you acquire the chemical and safety information you need:

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Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter - the fundamental methods that we use to classify matter.

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Pure Substances and Mixtures - there are several categories substances may belong to based on their composition and purity.

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Evidence of Chemical Change - new substances formed, gases released, energy change, distinct colour change and change in odour are pieces of evidence that indicate chemical change has occurred.

Text Pages 18

Food Safety - don't get sick! Learn more about food preservation:

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Traditional Approaches to Chemistry - native cultures employed basic chemistry priniciples. Find out more at these sites:

Text Pages 19-20

Metallurgy - learn more about the science of metal extraction:

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Famous Greek Philosophers - here are two very famous Greeks:

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Early Chemistry and Chemists - the history of chemistry has many fascinating moments:

  • A Brief History of Alchemy - a site explaining the confusing and mystical art of alchemy... with a great Flash interface option as well!
  • About Alchemists - a discussion of the 2000 years of alchemy, with an optional RealAudio spoken-word file.
  • Robert Boyle - a biography of Robert Boyle.

Text Pages 21-22

Early Atomic Theory - learn more about the scientists and developments that led to the modern model of the atom:

  • Atomic Structure Timeline - an excellent chemistry timeline with links to all of the major players involved in the development of chemistry as we know it.
  • John Dalton - developer of the theory that all matter was made of tiny, indestructible particles.
  • JJ Thomson - discoverer of electrons, without whose invention TV would be impossible!
  • JJ Thomson speaks - a lecture from Thomson on the nature of the electron.

Text Page 23

Ernest Rutherford - a Biography - from the site commemorating his 1908 Nobel prize.

Text Page 23

Ernest Rutherford - Atomic Theory - an illustrated description of this famous experiment, where alpha particles are shot through gold foil.

Text Page 24

Atomic Theory - all you could want to know about atomic theory.

Text Pages 24-25

Deep into the Atom - here are some very interesting sites for in-depth atomic information:

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Chemical Engineers - an exciting occupation in the field of science.

2.0: Elements combine to form many substances, each with its own set of properties

Text Page 28

The Chemistry of Colour - for many people, knowledge of chemistry allows for beautiful colours.

  • Dye Chemistry - if you do hands-on work with colours, pigments and chemistry are very important to you.

Text Page 25

Properties of Matter - how to tell apart all those elements in a crowded room.

Text Page 25

Fullerenes - also known as buckyballs, have been touted for everything from new microprocessors to a cure for AIDS.

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The Periodic Table - some handy sites for review of this amazing organizational device.

Text Page 31

Transition Metals - a special group of metals worth reading about.

Text Page 32

Atomic Theory - three subatomic particles and a whole lot of empty space.

Text Page 32

Supernovas - amazing subatomic shenanigans on a massive scale.

  • Distant Supernova (SN1997ff) - an actual supernova found with the Hubble Space Telescope, shown in excellent images.
  • Latest Supernovae - the "CNN" of supernovae, up-to-date information and images of each newly discovered supernova.

Text Pages 33-34

Atomic number, Mass number, Atomic molar mass & Isotopes - it all sounds confusing, but it will clear up after you skim through these links.

  • Atomic Number - the number of protons (positively charged particles) in the nucleus. There is also a quick explanation of isotopes here.
  • Isotopes - what they are, and how their different atomic masses are measured.

Text Pages 34-35

Ions - as every element tries to become as stable as possible, ions are formed as electrons are gained and lost.

Text Page 35

Sodium's reaction with water - sodium, a very reactive element!

Text Page 35

Reactivity of Metals - it was questions such as this that helped Mendeleev to devise experiments that lead to the development of the periodic table.

Combining Capacity (valence) - different elements, and groups, gain and lose different numbers of electrons.

Text Page 38

The Octet Rule - an explanation with some practice problems as well.

Text Page 38

Discovering New Elements - since the mid twentieth century, new elements have been discovered, but not in ways you might imagine!

Text Pages 40-41

Ionic Compounds - joining one positive and one negative ion together.

Text Pages 42-43

Naming Ionic Compounds - the steps to follow to correctly write and name ionic compounds.

Text Pages 46-47

Compound Basics - a contrast between ionic and molecular compounds.

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Text Page 48

Molecular Elements - certain nonmetals form covalent bonds between a single type of atom to form larger, pure structures made of single elements.

Text Page 48

Mercury - a liquid metal? A polyatomic ion? This is worth some reSEARCH!

Text Page 51

Writing a Hypothesis - If you learn how to write an effective hypothesis, then you will have a rewarding experience in your science labs.

Text Pages 51-52

Properties of Ionic Compounds - solid at room temperature, conducts electricity in a solution, high melting point, and other important details.

Text Page 55

Electrolytes - in a solution with water, ionic compounds are often called electrolytes.

Text Page 56

Precipitates and the Sugar Beet - sometimes precipitates can cause problems.

Text Pages 56-58

Solubility - Different solutions interact in different ways - from no reaction to violent reaction! We can predict with accuracy what will happen based on some rules of solubility.

Text Pages 58-59

Properties of Molecular Compounds - two non-metals sharing electrons.

Text Page 59

Molecular Compounds as Crystals - even though many crystals are ionic compounds, there are some interesting molecular crystals as well.

  • Crystals - did you know that glass is not really solid, but is a supercooled liquid?
  • Snow Crystals - a whole website dedicated to snow.
  • Wintergreen Lifesavers Spark Debate - why do sparks shoot from your teeth when you chew wintergreen lifesavers? Covalent crystal structures, of course.

Text Page 60

Special Properties of Water - as weird as water is, it is a good thing there is so much of it around!

Text Page 60

Hydrogen Bonds - for a weak bond, they are responsible for some important things.

Text Pages 62-63

Acids and Bases - almost every liquid we use is an acid or base. Do you know which is which?

Text Page 62

Ascorbic Acid Fact Sheet - how much do you know about vitamin C?

Text Page 62

Indigestion - not all biological experiences with acids are pleasant.

Text Page 63

Indicators - if there is no probe available for accurate pH readings, a chemical indicator can reveal approximate pH values.

Text Page 64

Acid Rain - along with the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer, one of the most publicized effects humans have had on the environment.

Text Page 64

What are Acids and Bases? - we know an acid has a low pH, but what does that really mean?

Text Pages 64-65

Naming Acids - an introduction to the sometimes confusion world of acid names.

Text Page 65

Strong and Weak Acids - if you can transfer your H or OH, you are strong like ox!

Text Page 66

Vitamin C - very good references on this vital vitamin:

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Recognizing Acids and Bases by their Formulas - as a rule of thumb, if it starts with H it can be an acid, and if it end in OH then it could be a base.

Text Page 67

Distilling Acidic Polluted Water - a way of dealing with a threat to drinking water supplies?

Text Page 68

Muriatic Acid - there are several uses for it around the home - just be careful!

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Neutralization - acid + base --> water + salt

Text Page 70

Hazardous Chemical Materials - there are many chemicals that we rely on that become hazardous once we dispose of them.

Text Page 71

Alcohol - a toxic chemical knowingly abused by people.

Text Page 72

Nicotine - usually delivered in a toxic mix known as tobacco.

Text Page 73

Benzene - a very toxic material that is found on many worksites.

  • Benzene - an encyclopedia of information.
  • Benzene - a fact sheet answering the most frequently asked questions about this toxic substance.
  • Benzene Levels - information from Alberta Environment.

Text Page 74

Chemistry-Related Careers - there are many careers that require chemistry knowledge, including food technology and cosmetics formulation.

Text Page 75

Acetone - striking a balance between using a useful chemical and disposing of it safely can be difficult.

3.0: Chemical change is a process that involves recombining atoms and energy flows

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Chemical Change - recombine atoms to produce new molecules.

Text Page 79

Examples of Chemical Change - look for the formation of new substances, or sometimes more subtle clues.

Text Pages 79-80

Chemical Reactions that form Gases - generally thought of as explosions, although some are very fast, and others are very slow.

Text Page 81

Exothermic Reactions - reactions that give off energy as heat, light, electricity or sound.

 Text Page 81

Endothermic Reactions - theory plus a set of fill-in-the-blank review questions.

Text Page 81

The Kinetic Molecular Theory - everything is made up of particles, the particles are always moving, and the particles often collide with each other.

Text Page 82

Biochemical Reactions - reactions that are directly responsible for life on Earth.

Text Page 82

Making Inferences - coming to a conclusion based on the evidence presented to you.

Text Pages 83-85

Conservation of Mass - no matter how large the chemical changes may appear, no matter is either created or destroyed.

Text Page 85

Forest Fires in Alberta - how large a contribution do forest fires make to the greenhouse gases released in Alberta?

Text Page 86

Writing Chemical Equations - using chemical symbols and formulas to represent the formation of new substances.

Text Page 86

First Noble Gas Compound Ever Produced - at UBC, xenon reacted with fluorine gas.

Neil Bartlett - the UBC scientist who was responsible for xenon difluoride.

Text Pages 87-88

Writing Balanced Formula Equations - by the Law of Conservation of Mass, every atom must be accounted for.

Text Page 89

Catalysts - get things going in a chemical reaction.

Text Page 91

Five Simple Types of Chemical Reactions - similar characteristics among millions of chemical changes allow scientists to classify them into groups.

Text Page 91

Fuel Cell Technology - alternative fuel for the future.

Text Pages 91-93

Formation Reactions - A + B --> AB, also known as synthesis reactions, creating a compound.

Text Page 94

Decomposition Reactions - AB --> A + B, the breaking down of a compound.

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Hydrocarbon Combustion Reactions - hydrocarbon + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water.

Text Pages 96-97

Single Replacement Reactions - A + BC --> B + AC

Text Pages 100-101

Double Replacement Reactions - AB + CD --> AC + BD

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The Haber Process - the formation of ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen.

Text Pages 107-111

The Mole - can you think of a better name for 6.02 X 1023 of something?

Text Page 108

What is Molar Mass? - a definition, plus a guide to finding the atomic molar mass of a compound.

Text Page 111

Moles & The Law of Conservation of Mass - balance the number of atoms in a chemical equation.

Text Page 114

Air Quality - the impact of air quality legislation affects our health and the environment, while at the same time furthering scientific discovery.

Text Page 115

Chemical Reactions Involving Magnesium - this alkaline earth shows some typical properties when reacting with various compounds.

  • Magnesium - properties of this element, including reactivity with different groups.


 Unit B


1.0: Investigating the energy flow in technological systems requries an understanding of motion, work, and energy

Text Page 124

Hero's Pop Can Engine - you can construct a Hero's engine model from a pop can. This site provides movies to demonstrate the construction, and also poses questions. Note the links on the left hand side for easy navigation through the activity.

Text Page 124

Hero Engine Links - there are many interesting information and activity pages available regarding the Hero's steam engine:

Text Page 124

Brief History of Rockets - this NASA page chronicles rocketry from Hero's engine all the way up to modern military rockets and satellites.

Text Page 124

The Apollo Missions - some of NASA's most exciting space adventures:

  • The Apollo Program - NASA's page devoted to the Apollo missions. By clicking on any of the missions, you will be taken a detailed description of the spacecraft and missions, with excellent photographs, and even movies of the mission broadcasts.
  • Project Apollo - great information.

Text Page 126

The Route of the Tour de France - an animated view of the entire route on an excellent map of France.

Text Page 127

How Maglev Trains Work - very good description of electromagnetic propulsion.

Text Page 127-130

1-D Kinematics - an excellent series of motion description tutorials:

Text Page 131-133

Describing Motion with Velocity vs. Time Graphs - another excellent motion description tutorial!

Text Page 132

Speedy Animals and Machines! - try the following links to get you started on the fastest of everything:

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Scalar and Vector Quantities - can't quite understand? Try these sites, they do a great job of explaining the difference:

Text Page 139-140

Motion in Two Dimensions - clear examples, and you can quiz yourself too!

Text Page 139-140

Vector Fundamentals - get all the basics here!

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Velocity - clear examples, and you can quiz yourself too!

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WWW Unit Converter - this is just one of many good unit conversion utilities on the Internet.

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Acceleration - clear examples, and you can quiz yourself too!

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Acceleration Records - it's tough to find good data on acceleration, but try searching these sites:

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1-D Kinematics - an excellent series of motion description tutorials:

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Newton's Laws of Motion - a description of all three laws in detail.

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Did you ever wonder what it would be like to pop a water balloon in space? - NASA's microgravity science division does the experiment for you, and shows you the result with QuickTime movies. An excellent way to start your study of balanced forces.

Text Page 155-156

Newton's First Law of Motion - an excellent tutorial that includes clear diagrams and poses some excellent questions about balanced and unbalanced forces.

Text Page 155-156

Physics Glossary - confused by all the terms used to describe motion in physics? Read over this list of terms and all will become clear!

Text Page 155-156

Amusement Park Physics Free Fall - this site explains the forces involved in those scary rides! Don't miss the weightless water trick at the bottom of the page.

Text Page 155-156

Forces, Accelerations & Car Accidents - this collection of movies portray graphic examples of the effect of large forces on objects (and the consequences in vehicle collisions).

Text Page 157

Definition and Mathematics of Work - for a clear explanation of what constitutes work. Once you have read the lesson, try some of the questions.

Text Page 157

Work-Energy Theorem - Just because you apply a force does not mean work is done! Once you have read the lesson, try some of the questions.

Text Page 159-160

All About Energy - the following links will tell you more about the Joule (and the scientist the unit was named after):

  • Watt's a Joule? - an entertaining introduction to the concept of energy.
  • The Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester: Joule and Energy - an amazing site that includes multimedia presentations on Joule and his experiments, hosts a virtual question and answer session with James Joule, and explains his scientific work in detail.
  • Energy Lesson - this lesson thoroughly explains potential and kinetic energy, and Joule's role in demonstrating energy conversions. A mini potential-kinetic energy conversion experiment is included!
  • What Type of Energy Is It? - an entertaining introduction to different energy types and forms.

2.0: Energy in mechanical systems can be described both numerically and graphically

Text Page 164

University of Waterloo museum of games - check out the other games of the Inuit.

Text Pages 165-166

The Joseph Henry Papers Project - a large site hosted by the Smithsonian Institution, devoted to the life and work of Joseph Henry.

Text Page 165-166

The Life and Work of Michael Faraday - try the following links for more information on the fascinating life of Faraday:

Text Pages 168-169

Is it Possible to Generate Electricity Directly from Heat? - it turns out there are several ways it can be done - some of the ways are described here.

Text Pages 168-170

Thermodynamics Science Toys - here are some ideas for constructing simple toys that demonstrate the laws of thermodynamics and energy conversion. Make sure you take appropriate safety precautions before building any of these toys.

Text Pages 169-170

Count Rumford - visit the following sites to learn more about the man and the scientist:

 Text Pages 173-177

Potential Energy and Energy Conversions - how does energy change forms? Find out exactly what happens with the following links:

  • Potential Energy - here you will find a good description of how to determine an object's potential energy. When you have read the tutorial, try the questions.
  • Bouncing Balls - such a simple activity, but it's an excellent illustration of the conversion of potential to kinetic energy, and back again. Part of the Science of Baseball site - you may also want to visit the Science of Hockey site for more discussions of motion and energy.
  • How Roller Coasters Work - there is no better example of interacting potential and kinetic energy than a roller coaster. Learn all about the intricacies of coasters at this site.
  • Mechanical Energy - this type of energy can be hard to understand - it is the energy due to an object's motion and/or stored energy. This site has many excellent mechanical energy examples and descriptions.

 Text Pages 173-177

Pyramids: The Inside Story - amazing amounts of energy went into the construction of the pyramids. Find out more about them at this amazing resource from NOVA, which lets you thoroughly explore the pyramids.

 Text Page 177

Acceleration Due to Gravity - the following links will point you in the right direction if you want to perform an experiment on gravity determination, and also provide some numbers for gravity at different locations on Earth.

 Text Pages 179-181

Kinetic Energy - your key to energy in motion:

  • Kinetic Energy - learn what kinetic energy is and how it is measured. Includes a few kinetic energy questions.
  • Kinetic Energy - this site focuses on the concept of kinetic energy with a good definition and example.

 Text Page 181

Windpower.org - this is the ultimate place to start your search for windpower information. Videos, activities, links, quizzes and much more.

 Text Pages 186-188

The Circular Motion of a Pendulum - why does a pendulum's back-and-forth motion turn into a circular motion? Find out why at these links:

 Text Pages 190-194

Energy Conversions - the links below lead to good descriptions of several types of energy converters:

 Text Page 194

NASA Human SpaceFlight: The International Space Station - does the ISS intrigue you? It is a marvel of engineering - find out more about it from this NASA page devoted to it. It is an especially good example of solar cell application. You may also want to check out these detailed pages that cover all the aspects of the ISS engineering and function.

 Text Page 195

Aprilia Enjoy Fuel Cell Bicycle - information on Time Magazine's 2001 "Inventions of the Year", the fuel-cell powered bicycle.

 Text Page 195

Fuel Cell - here are several links to explore to learn more about the amazing technology of fuel cells:

3.0: Priniciples of energy conservation and thermodynamics can be used to describe the efficiency of energy transformations

 Text Page 198

The Official Rube Goldberg Web Site - a biography, plus a great gallery. You will also want to check out the Rube Goldberg machine contest, there you will find a neat video of some wild Rube Goldberg type machines.

 Text Page 202

The Museum of Unworkable Devices - struggling to make that perpertual motion machine work? Perhaps you should check out this page first - it has detailed descriptions of approaches to perpetual motion machines, adn why each of them cannot work. If you desire more interesting perpetual motion machine links, try these:

  • Perpetual Motion - descriptions and debunking of very interesting theories.
  • HPs Perpetuum Mobile - this may be the most comprehensive site on the Internet regarding perpetual motion. It contains an amazing amount of information and analysis - go from page to page by clicking the lick at the bottom "next chapter". Read it all, it's excellent!

 Text Pages 203-205

Heat Engine Concepts - detailed explanations of heat engine examples.

 Text Pages 203-205

How Air Conditioners Work - excellent set of pages clearly explains air conditioners. You should also see the related page on heat pumps.

 Text Pages 203-205

How Gas Turbine Engines Work - jet engines are good examples of heat engines. Find out how they work here. You might also want to check out these pages for more jet engine information:

 Text Page 204

Entropy - what is it? Will the universe eventually experience a "heat death"? Find out at the following links:

 Text Page 205

How Refrigerators Work - maybe now that you know how refrigerators work, you won't stand in front so long with the door open! This site explains all the parts and details the operation of modern refrigerators, but also discusses other methods of keeping things cool.

 Text Page 206

Archimedes Screw - a fascinating device:

 Text Pages 208-209

Steam Engines - don't get steamed! Here are a bunch of great steam engine links:

 Text Pages 210-211

How Car Engines Work - wonderful animations of the inner mechanisms of a car engine that clearly explain the internal combustion engine. Also probvides complete explanations of engine subsystems.

 Text Pages 210-211

Back to the Basics - a simple but clear description of the four stroke engine operating sequence, or otherwise known as the "Otto" cycle.

 Text Page 213

Solar Sail Technology - let's hope we see this technology developed soon:

 Text Page 213

Big Steam Engines - visit the following sites for interesting information on the engines that powered massive machines:

 Text Page 220

How Thermoses Work - wonder how those flasks and mugs keep your beverages warm? Find out here!

 Text Pages 221-223

Energy Sources, Efficiency and Conservation - if you need more information on a particular energy source, you'll find it here:

 Text Pages 221-223

Fusion - learn more about fusion! Check out these sites:

 Text Page 224

Fossil Fuels - find out more about the "burning" issue of fossil fuels!

 Text Pages 225-227

Sustainability - how can we make our energy sources last?

  • Sustainable Energy Coalition - a coalition of many organizations with the common goal of energy efficiency and promoting renewable energy technologies.
  • The Sustainability Report - pages devoted to exploring issues and trends associated with sustainable development in Canada.

 Text Page 226

Canadian Power Plants - learn more about these specific power generation facilities:

 Text Page 229

Transportation Energy Sources - try these links!


Unit C

1.0: Our current understanding of the cell is due in part to developments in imaging technology

 Text Pages 240-241

The Walkerton Disaster - showing the importance of providing clean drinking water.

 Text Pages 241

Filtering Giardia - can it be done? You just have to choose the right filter!

 Text Pages 243-244

A Window on a New World - viewing microscopic living processes opened up an entire new world for scientists of the 17th century.

 Text Page 247

Spontaneous Generation - until the invention of the microscope, micro-organism behaviour resulted in people believing in spontaneous generation.

 Text Page 248

Working with the Microscopic - there are many interesting and challenging careers in the fields of microbiology, immunology and biochemistry.

 Text Pages 250-251

Hay Infusion - how many living organisms could there be in a handful of hay?

 Text Page 251

The Cell Theory - all living things are made up of cells, all life functions take place within cells, and all cells come from other cells through the process of cell reproduction.

 Text Page 252

Louis Pasteur - a very important scientist in early microbiology.

 Text Pages 253-260

Developments in Microscopy - there are various techniques and technologies that improve our ability to view the microscopic world.

 Text Pages 261-263

Gene Mapping - with new microscope technology, we can study the actual structure of DNA.

 Text Page 262

Immunostaining - how microscopes help to identify antibodies attacking invaders.

 Text Page 264

Three Dimensional Structure of Molecules - how can we create accurate 3D models of molecules?

 Text Page 264

Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) Technology - how a jellyfish is helping to better understand neurological disorders like Huntington's Disease.

2.0: Living systems are dependent upon the functioning of cell structures and organelles

 Text Pages 267-270

Cell Organelles - every cell is specialized to perform a certain function and interact with its environment in an open, yet selective, way.

 Text Pages 271-272

Secondary Metabolic Products of Cells - there are many substances made by cells that are not used for the actual structure and function of the cell.

 Text Pages 271-272

The Cell Membrane - allowing some materials to enter, while keeping everything harmful out.

 Text Page 273

Cell Membrane Proteins - glycoproteins, proteins embedded in the cell membrane with sugar groups hanging off the end, are integral to the movement of substances.

  • Membrane Proteins - look for the proteins extending all the way through the membrane, with red sugar groups on the ends.
  • Glycoproteins - up close and personal.

 Text Page 274

The Particle Model of Matter and Cell Transport - we must understand how particles move to understand the purpose of cell membranes.

 Text Page 275

Diffusion - the natural movement of particles from high to low concentration.

 Text Pages 277-278

Osmosis - simple diffusion of water molecules across a semi-permeable membrane.

Text Page 278

Facilitated Diffusion - movement with the concentration gradient, but with an added bit of help from some proteins.

Text Pages 278-279

Active Transport - moving molecules against the concentration gradient, using up energy along the way.

 Text Page 281

Endocytosis and Exocytosis - when you have a large molecule to move, and normal membrane channels just won't do, use a vesicle to finish the job.

 Text Page 284

Membrane Proteins and Disease - how can we use knowledge of receptor proteins to help fight disease?

 Text Page 285

Synthetic Membrane Technology - by creating 'fake' cell membranes, scientists can deliver medicine to very specific sites in the body.

  • Liposomes - what they are, and how they work.
  • Liposomes - what they are, and their uses.

 Text Page 286

Transport of Protein Hormones - regulatory hormones are proteins used by the body to bind to a receptor protein and change the behaviour of that cell.

 Text Pages 286-287

Peritoneal Dialysis - by using the concept of concentration gradients, sufferers of kidney failure may still remove wastes and lead an otherwise normal life.

 Text Pages 287-288

Reverse Osmosis - just like it sounds; force water through a membrane in the opposite direction it wants to go.

 Text Pages 289-293

A Cell's Ratio of Surface Area to Volume - the larger a cell becomes, the more difficult it is for that cell to survive.

 Text Page 293

The Range of Ratios of Surface Area to Volume - in human cells and plant cells.

3.0: Plants are multicellular organisms with specialized structures

 Text Pages 297-300

Plant Structure - what we think of as fairly simple organisms are actually filled with different cells, tissues, organs and organ systems.

 Text Pages 301-302

Specialization in Plant Cells - like all multicellular organisms, plants must have specialized cells and tissues to survive.

 Text Pages 303-305

The Cells involved in Photosynthesis - by studying the functions of specific cells, we can make more sense of the entire process of photosynthesis.

 Text Pages 303-305

Chloroplasts - found only in plant cells, these organelles are where photosynthesis take place.

  • Chloroplasts - these structures are green in colour, because they contain the pigment chlorophyll.
  • Chlorophyll - structure, function, and an interesting graph showing which colours chlorophyll is most sensitive to.
  • Photosynthetic Pigments - chlorophyll is not the only one.
  • Cytoplasmic Streaming - another site showing chloroplasts moving through the cytoplasm of Canadian pondweed (Elodea canadensis), both in images and video.

 Text Pages 305-308

Gas Production in Plants - two processes, one producing carbon dioxide, and the other producing oxygen.

 Text Pages 306-307

Activity C15 Supplement: Close-up Movie of Bubbling Stem - this QuickTime movie shows the result of this QuickLab.

 Text Pages 309-313

The Leaf Tissues and Gas Exchange - there are many layers of cells in a leaf.

 Text Page 313

Leaf Structure in Agriculture and Horticulture - how can knowledge about the leaf help those who work with plants for their living?

 Text Page 315

Transport in Plants - how do plants move water and nutrients with an animal-like circulatory system and heart?

 Text Page 316

Cohesion and Adhesion in Water - the molecular structure that gives water its unique properties.

 Text Pages 316-317

Root Pressure  - the movement of water into the roots of the plant, forcing more water up the stem.

 Text Page 317

Colourful Carnations - don't have time for this activity? Here is an image that clearly illustrates the effects of water transport.

 Text Pages 317-318

Water Transport in Plants - partly the pushing pressure of water being absorbed into the roots, partly the pulling pressure of transpiration in the leaves.

 Text Pages 320-321

Sugar Transport in Plants - solid materials travel through the phloem of the plant.

  • Translocation of Food - what is moved through the phloem, and how it moves.
  • Pressure-Flow Theory - also known as the Mass Flow hypothesis, describing how sugars, minerals and water all work in conjunction.

 Text Page 321

Cell Enlargement - check the end of this page for sieve tube cell information.

 Text Pages 323-327

Control Systems in Plants - unable to react as quickly as animals to their environment, plants have developed some amazing ways to adapt.

 Text Page 328

When Will the Flowers Bloom? - when, and why, do plants bloom, from a desert perspective.

 Text Page 329

Biotechnology Research Scientist - designing ways to learn about living systems.

 Text Page 329

Interview with Dr. Olga Kovalchuk - visit the Alberta Innovation Web site to listen to a radio interview with Dr. Kovalchuk to learn more about the fascinating research taking place at the University of Lethbridge.

 Text Page 331

Cellular Transport - medical and industrial careers that involve knowledge of how cells move materials.

Unit D

1.0: Climate results from interactions among the components of the biosphere

 Text Pages 340-341

Champsosaurs and Prehistoric Global Warming - find out the possible connection from these articles:

 Text Pages 340-341

Changes at the Poles - a huge proportion of the world's fresh water is found frozen on the Arctic ocean and the Antarctic continent.

 Text Page 341

Climate and Tree Growth - not only can you count the rings in a tree's trunk to estimate its age, but you can also learn what each growing season was like over the life of the tree.

 Text Page 342

SHEBA homepage - a small collection of SHEBA information.

 Text Page 342

The Biosphere - unique to the Earth, the biosphere consists of all living organisms and the environments where they exist.

 Text Page 342

The Atmosphere - 500 km of gases that provide a buffer between the Earth and outer space.

 Text Pages 344-345

The Troposphere - the part of the atmosphere closest to the Earth.

 Text Pages 345-346

The Stratosphere - the layer of atmosphere above the troposphere, where the ozone layer is found.

 Text Pages 345-346

The Mesosphere and Thermosphere - the outer layers of the atmosphere.

 Text Page 346

Earth's Lithosphere - the shape of the Earth.

 Text Page 346

The Hydrosphere - all the water on Earth.

 Text Page 346

Interactions between components of the Biosphere

 Text Pages 347-348

Air Temperature and Altitude - increases in altitude can result in large changes in temperature.

 Text Page 348

Inversions - hot air always rises... or does it? Mountains can often contribute to the effect... no, that is not an ocean.

 Text Pages 350-351

Climate Affects All Organisms - biodiversity partly comes from changes in climate from region to region.

 Text Pages 352-354

Global Climate Change - why does the climate change, and what impact might humans have on this change.


3.0: Changes in global energy transfer could cause climate change, and impact human life and the biosphere

 Text Pages 411-412

Changes in Greenhouse Gas levels - evidence, trends and predictions.

 Text Pages 413-416

Greenhouse Gases and Human Activity - we know greenhouse gases can be produced naturally, but how much do humans contribute?

 Text Pages 415-417

Evaluating the evidence of Climate Change - as good scientists, how do determine which evidence is best, and what conclusions can we draw from what we see.

 Text Pages 415-417

Global Warming - what are the effects of humans increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?

 Text Page 418

Nature's Atmospheric Detergents - how hydroxyls and nitrates in the air help clean the atmosphere.

 Text Page 419

Scientific Collaboration on Climate Change - greenhouse gases know no borders.

 Text Page 420

Dr. Andrew Weaver - the global warming guy.

 Text Pages 421-424

Political Collaboration on Climate Change - the policy makers in government must work together if there is to be changes made for the benefit of the Earth's climate.

 Text Pages 421-424

Reducing Greenhouse Gases - there are many ideas, both old and new, natural and man-made, to reduce the amounts of greenhouses gases produced.

 Text Page 425

Reducing Greenhouse Gases and Saving Money - is it possible for businesses to be both environmentally friendly and stay profitable?

 Text Page 425

Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change - as our climate changes, how will our surroundings change along with it?

 Text Page 428

Taiga Rescue Network - this page on climate change is only a small part of the Rescue Network resource.

 Text Page 430

Impacts of Climate Change in Alberta - everyone would feel the impact of a changing Alberta climate.