Table of Contents

Acknowledgments vii

Introduction 1


Section One: Using Guided Reading to Help Individual Readers Construct

an Effective Literacy Processing System 7

1 What is Guided Reading? 8

2 Guided Reading Within a Multitext Approach Levels of Support for Literacy Learning 34

3 From Shared to Guided Reading in the Early Years 52

4 Shared and Performance Reading Across the Grades 82

5 Planning for Effective Guided Reading Lessons Building a Strong Early Reading Process 100

6 Planning for Effective Guided Reading Lessons Lifting the Competencies of Every Reader 126

7 Using Guided Reading for Effective Teaching of English Language Learners 156


Section Two: Using Systematic Observation and Assessment to Form Groups and Guide Teaching 187

8 Understanding Reading as a Complex Process 188

9 Observing and Assessing Readers to Inform Teaching Decisions 208

10 Using Assessment to Form Dynamic Groups and Document Reading Progress 238

11 Using Running Records and The Fountas & Pinnell Literacy Continuum to Guide Teaching 256


Section Three: Using High-Quality Texts to Support Responsive Teaching 277

12 Creating a Collection of Texts to Support Literacy Learning 278

13 The F&P Text Gradient™ A Tool for Teaching 292

14 Selecting and Introducing Texts for Guided Reading 328


Section Four: Effective Decision Making Within the Guided Reading Lesson 359

15 Teaching for Systems of Strategic Actions in Guided Reading 360

16 Teaching for Monitoring, Searching, and Self-Correction Behaviors 376

17 Teaching for Visual Processing Over Time Solving Words 396

18 Teaching for Phrased, Fluent Reading in Guided Reading Lessons 422

19 The Role of Facilitative Talk in Supporting Change Over Time in Processing Systems 446

20 Teaching for Comprehending Helping Students Think Within, Beyond, and About the Text 468


Section Five: Thinking, Talking, Reading, and Writing in a Classroom Community 499

21 Building a Community of Readers Across the Grades 500

22 Managed Independent Learning in the Early Grades 524

23 Managing Literacy in the Intermediate/Middle Grades 554

24 A Design for Language and Literacy Instruction 576

References 597

Index 605