# Taking Shape

### Part 1: Background and Research

#### Chapter 1: Shaping Young Minds: Why We Care About Spatial Reasoning in the Early Years

• What Is Spatial Reasoning?
• Why Math in the Early Years Is So Important
• Why Teach Spatial Reasoning?

#### Chapter 2: What Makes This Book Different From Other Geometry resources?

• 1. An Expanded Vision of Geometry
• 2. A Deep Focus on Five Particular Aspects of Geometry
• 3. An Emphasis on Playful Pedagogy
• 4. A Research Focus: Tested Educational Benefits

#### Chapter 3: A Review of Spatial Reasoning Concepts and Processes

• 1. Visualization
• 2. Mental Rotation
• 3. Visual-Spatial Working Memory
• 4. Information Processing
• 5. Spatial Language
• 6. Gestures

#### Chapter 4: How to Use This Book

• Implementation Suggestions
• How Is the Book Organized?
• Where to Begin?
• What Next?
• Classroom Organization
• Observing Student Thinking: Junior Kindergarten to Grade 2
• Assessment Suggestions

### Part 2: Activities

#### Section A: Symmetry

• Lesson 1: Let’s Learn About Symmetry
• Lesson 2: Pattern Block Symmetry Puzzles
• Lesson 3: Pentomino Symmetry Games
• Lesson 4: Symmetry on Grids—Integrating Location and Number
• Lesson 5: Grid Symmetry Game
• Lesson 6: Hole-Punch Symmetry Challenge
• Lesson 7: Symmetry Card Games

#### Section B: Composing, Decomposing, and Transforming Two-Dimensional Shapes

• Lesson 1: Find the Magic (Pentomino) Keys
• Lesson 2: See It, Build It, Check It—Pattern Blocks
• Lesson 3: The Hexagon Card Game
• Lesson 4: Can You Draw This?
• Lesson 5: Can You Cover It?
• Lesson 6: The Square Mover
• Lesson 7: The Shape Transformer

#### Section C: Composing, Decomposing, and Transforming Three-Dimensional Objects

• Lesson 1: The Cube Challenge—Discovering Three-Dimensional Congruence
• Lesson 2: Build It in Your Mind
• Lesson 3: Box or Not?
• Lesson 4: See It, Build It, Check It—Interlocking Cubes
• Lesson 5: Building Rules!

#### Section D: Locating, Orienting, Mapping, and Coding

• A Focus on Coding
• Lesson 1: Introductory Barrier Game
• Lesson 2: Secret Shape Code
• Lesson 3: What Did You Make?
• Lesson 4: Pathway Moves
• Lesson 5: Paper Pathways
• Lesson 6: Secret Code Game
• Lesson 7: Pathway Coding Game

#### Section E: Perspective Taking

• Lesson 1: Mother Bird Finds a Sculpture
• Lesson 2: Shoebox Goggles
• Lesson 3: Build It, Photograph It, Make It
• Lesson 4: Crazy Creatures
• Lesson 5: What Do You See?
• Lesson 6: Secret LEGO® Buildings

### Appendices

• One-to-One Interview Tasks and Observation Guides
• Index of Lessons by Grade Level
• Index of Lessons by Math and Spatial Reasoning Focus
• References
• Authors
• Credits